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Table of Content
Chapter: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15 | 16-20 |

  Chapter 1: Why is French so difficult?
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
Why is French so difficult?
Great variety of phonemes
Precise definition of structures in written language, but not in spoken language
Usual difficulties of Roman languages
Great variety of morphemes
Competing systems
Different writing, same pronounciation
How does French sound?


  Chapter 2: Pronunciation
2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.1.1
2.2.1.2
2.2.1.3
2.2.1.4
2.2.1.5
2.2.2

2.2.2.1
2.2.2.2
2.2.2.3


2.3
2.3.1
2.3.1.1
2.3.1.2
2.3.2
2.3.2.1
2.3.2.2
2.3.2.3
2.3.2.4


2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5
2.3.5.1
2.3.5.2

2.3.6

2.4
2.4.1
2.4.1.1
2.4.1.2

2.4.2
2.4.2.1
2.4.2.2
2.4.2.3
2.4.2.4
2.4.2.5
2.4.2.6
2.4.2.7
2.4.2.8
2.4.2.9
2.4.2.10
2.4.2.11

2.5
2.5.1

2.6

2.7
2.8.1
2.8.2
2.8.3
2.8.4
2.8.5
2.8.6
2.8.7
2.8.8
The sounds in an overview - Part 1   -  Part 2 -  Part 3
Single sounds in detail
Nasal a, ae and o
Creating nasal sounds
The nasal sounds
Nasal o
Nasal a
Nasal ae

open nasale e and nasale closed o
open nasale a and open nasale e
Nasal open e, nasal a and nasal o

Oral vocals
Open oe, closed oe, tubby e
Tubby e
Open and closed oe
Open e and closed e
Closed e part 1 - part 2 - part 3
Open e (ae)
Comparison to the tubby e
The e muet

Open and closed o - part 1 - part 2
Dark and bright a
Easy vowels
French i
French u

French ue

Consonants
Voiced and unvoiced sounds
Voiced and unvoiced s - part 1 - part 2
Voiced and unvoiced sh

Easy consonants
The p
The b
The t
The d
The m
The n
The nj
The ng
The l
The r
The h

Accent as non-diacritical mark
Accent as non-diacritical mark for differentiation of homonyms

Liaison

Summary - part 1 - part 2
Exercise 1: closed, open or tubby e
Exercise 2: closed, open or tubby oe
Exercise 3: closed o, open o or tubby oe
Exercise 4: nasal open e or nasal a
Exercise 5: nasal open e, nasal a or nasal o
Exercise 6: dark and bright a
Exercise 7: voiced and unvoiced s
Exercise 8: voiced and unvoiced sh



  Chapter 3: Nouns, articles and adjective in singular and plural
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.1.1
3.1.1.1.1
3.1.1.1.1.1
3.1.1.1.1.2
3.1.1.1.1.3

3.1.1.2
3.1.1.2.1
3.1.1.3
3.1.1.3.1
3.1.1.3.2
3.1.1.3.3
3.1.1.4
3.1.1.4.1
3.1.1.4.2
3.1.1.4.3
3.1.1.4.4
3.1.1.5

3.2
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.1.1
3.3.1.2
3.3.1.3

3.4
3.4.1
3.4.1.1
3.4.1.2
3.4.1.3
3.4.1.4
3.4.2
3.4.2.1
3.4.2.1.1
3.4.2.1.2
3.4.2.1.3
3.4.2.1.4
3.4.2.1.5
3.4.2.1.6
3.4.2.1.7
3.4.2.1.8

3.5
3.5.1
3.5.1.1
3.5.1.2
3.5.2
3.6

3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7.4
3.7.5
3.7.6
3.7.7
3.7.8
3.7.9
3.7.10
3.7.11
Nouns, articles and adjectives
Articles
Definite articles
Forms of the definite articles
Specialties, when the noun starts with a vowel or a mute h
Specialties, when the noun starts with a vocal in plural (les)
Definite article and geographical descriptions

Indefinite articles
Liaison with indefinite articles - part 1 - part 2
Partitive article
de + la, de + le => partitive article
Is des (de + les) a partitive article?
Use of de la, du, des as partitive article
No article
No article after the preposition sans
No article after the preposition en
No article, when the noun is before the preposition de, which was required by the verb
No article after quantity specifications
Definite article / partitive article

Formation of feminine and masculine form - part 1 - part 2 - part 3
Formation of the plural
Morphems for formation of the plural
Regular formation of the plural with -s
Plural morpheme -aux
Identical singular and plural for nouns ending with s or x

Adjectives
Position of adjectives
Prefixed adjectives
Rule: The adjective is after the noun
Prefixed adjectives in position after the noun
Placing adjectives in front of a noun, that usually are in the position after the noun
Formation of feminine and masculine adjectives
In the feminine form the final consonant is voiced
d => de
t => te, t => tte
s => se, s => sse
et => ète
x => ce
(i)er => (i)ère
Adjectives, whose masculine form end on a nasal sound - part 1 - part 2
eux => euse

Formation of the plural of adjectives
Specialties with the plural of masculine forms
eau => eaux, ou => oux
al => aux
No difference between feminine and masculine form
Liaison

Exercise 1: Definite / indefinite articles
Exercise 2: Definite / indefinite and partitive articles
Exercise 3: Singular and plural form with indefinite articles
Exercise 4: Singular and plural form with definite articles
Exercise 5: Partitive article or Genitivee?
Exercise 6: Plural forms I
Exercise 7: Singular and plural forms
Exercise 8: Plural forms II
Exercise 9: With or without articles?
Exercise 10: Liaisons
Exercise 11: Adjectives before and after the noun?


  Chapter 4: Conjugation in present tense
4.
4.1

4.2
4.2.0
4.2.1
4.2.1.1
4.2.1.1.1
4.2.1.1.2
4.2.1.1.3

4.2.1.2
4.2.1.2.1
4.2.1.2.2
4.2.1.2.3

4.2.1.3
4.2.1.3.1
4.2.1.3.2
4.2.1.3.3
4.2.1.3.4

4.2.1.4
4.2.1.4.1

4.3
4.4

4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5
4.5.6

Conjugation in present tense
Introduction to the conjugation


Formation of the present tense
Pronouns and verb classification - part 1 - part 2
Verbs in present tense
Regular verbs ending on -er
Perfectly regular
Pronounced regularly, written irregularly - part 1 - part 2
Written irregularly, minimal difference in pronunciation

Verbs ending on -ir
Perfectly regular
Pronounced regularly, written irregularly
Written and pronounced irregularly

Verbs ending on -re
Perfectly regular
Pronounced regularly, written irregularly
Written irregularly, minimal difference in pronounciation
Changes in writing and pronunciation

Verbs ending on -oir
All modal verbs belong to this group

Important irregular verbs
Summary

Exercise 1: Conjugate these verbs in present tense
Exercise 2: Conjugate these verbs in present tense
Exercise 3: Conjugate these verbs in present tense
Exercise 4: Conjugate these verbs in present tense
Exercise 5: Conjugate these verbs in present tense
Exercise 6: Conjugate these verbs in present tense


  Chapter 5: French survival guide 1

5.
5. 1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5

5.2
5.2.1
5.2.1.1
5.2.1.2
5.2.2
5.2.3

5.3

5.4
5.4.1
5.4.1.1
5.4.1.2
5.4.2
5.4.2.1

5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3

5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
5.6.5
5.6.6
5.6.7
5.6.8

French survival guide 1
Declining in French
Subject / Nominative
Direct object / Accusative
Indirect object / Dative
Possessed object / Genitive
Summary

Personal pronouns
Positions of the personal pronouns
... one conjugated verb
... several conjugated verbs
Sequence of several personal pronouns
Unconnected personal pronouns

Formation of the perfect participles - part 1 - part 2

Possessive pronouns
French system of possessive pronouns
No article before possessive pronouns
Possessive and personal pronouns
Substantival possessive pronouns
notre / nôtre, votre / vôtre

Prepositions
de = of, from
à = at, in, to
pour = for

Exercise 1: Personal pronouns in Dative / Accusative 1
Exercise 2: Personal pronouns in Dative / Accusative 2
Exercise 3: Position of the personal pronouns
Exercise 4: Present perfect
Exercise 5: Modal verbs
Exercise 6: Adjectival possessive pronouns
Exercise 7: Adjectival possessive pronouns
Exercise 8: Substantival personal pronouns


Table of Content
Chapter: 1-5 | 6-10 | 11-15 | 16-20